Stainless steel is a ferrous alloy  with a minimum of 10% chromium  (and a combination of one or more of other elements such as Aluminium, Carbon, Manganese,  Molybdenum  , Nickel,  Nitrogen, Titanium ).  It is less likely to react chemically with environments than would have rusted ordinary steel.


Information here is derived from many  sources including those below.


Types of stainless steels.







This crystal structure makes such steels non-magnetic and less brittle at low temperatures.

Highly corrosion resistant, but less durable than austenitic grades.

Not as corrosion resistant as the other two classes, but are extremely strong and tough as well as highly machineable, and can be hardened by heat treatment.

Duplex steel have improved strength over austenitic stainless steels and also improved resistance to localised corrosion particularly pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.



 They contain a maximum of 0.15% carbon, a minimum of 16% chromium and sufficient nickel and/or manganese. For higher hardness and strength, carbon is added. When subjected to adequate heat treatment these steels are used as razor blades, cutlery, tools etc.

Contain between 10.5% and 27% chromium and very little nickel, if any. Most compositions include molybdenum; some, aluminium or titanium.

 Contains chromium (12-14%), molybdenum (0.2-1%), no nickel, and about 0.1-1% carbon (giving it more hardness but making the material a bit more brittle). It is quenched and magnetic.

High chromium content (19-28%) and molybdenum (up to 5%) and lower nickel contents than austenitic stainless steels.


Highly sophisticated power generation units. Power generator retaining rings, high-strength bolts and superconducting magnet housings. House ware products, industrial piping and vessels, constructional structures and architectural facades.


Typical applications may include appliances, automotive and indoor architectural trim (i.e., decorative purposes), washing machines, Boilers.   The cheapest stainless steels are found in this family.

Depending on composition its uses can range from cutlery, steam and gas turbine blades and buckets, bushings... Addition of sulphur for machinability, used for screws, gears. Dental and surgical instruments, Ball bearings and races, gauge blocks, molds and dies

 Application is frequently confined to temperatures below about 300C.

 Brewery pipes and tanks, tank trailers for hot chemicals, oil and gas industries, chemical engineering, and Power generation (feed water heaters, flue gas scrubbers.)


 Cold Drawn Seamless and Cold Drawn Welded TubeCold drawn seamless and cold drawn welded pipe.




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